Man page for apt-get wget Command
This tutorial shows the man page for man wget in linux.
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WGET(1) GNU Wget WGET(1)
Wget The non interactive network downloader.
wget [option]... [URL]...
GNU Wget is a free utility for non interactive download of files from
the Web. It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, as well as
retrieval through HTTP proxies.
Wget is non interactive, meaning that it can work in the background,
while the user is not logged on. This allows you to start a retrieval
and disconnect from the system, letting Wget finish the work. By
contrast, most of the Web browsers require constant user's presence,
which can be a great hindrance when transferring a lot of data.
Wget can follow links in HTML, XHTML, and CSS pages, to create local
versions of remote web sites, fully recreating the directory structure
of the original site. This is sometimes referred to as "recursive
downloading." While doing that, Wget respects the Robot Exclusion
Standard (/robots.txt). Wget can be instructed to convert the links in
downloaded files to point at the local files, for offline viewing.
Wget has been designed for robustness over slow or unstable network
connections; if a download fails due to a network problem, it will keep
retrying until the whole file has been retrieved. If the server
supports regetting, it will instruct the server to continue the
download from where it left off.
Since Wget uses GNU getopt to process command line arguments, every
option has a long form along with the short one. Long options are more
convenient to remember, but take time to type. You may freely mix
different option styles, or specify options after the command line
arguments. Thus you may write:
wget r tries=10 http://fly.srk.fer.hr/ o log
The space between the option accepting an argument and the argument may
be omitted. Instead of o log you can write olog.
You may put several options that do not require arguments together,
This is completely equivalent to:
wget d r c
Since the options can be specified after the arguments, you may
terminate them with . So the following will try to download URL x,
reporting failure to log:
wget o log x
The options that accept comma separated lists all respect the
convention that specifying an empty list clears its value. This can be
useful to clear the .wgetrc settings. For instance, if your .wgetrc
sets "exclude_directories" to /cgi bin, the following example will
first reset it, and then set it to exclude /~nobody and /~somebody.
You can also clear the lists in .wgetrc.
wget X " X /~nobody,/~somebody
Most options that do not accept arguments are boolean options, so named
because their state can be captured with a yes or no ("boolean")
variable. For example, follow ftp tells Wget to follow FTP links
from HTML files and, on the other hand, no glob tells it not to
perform file globbing on FTP URLs. A boolean option is either
affirmative or negative (beginning with no). All such options share
Unless stated otherwise, it is assumed that the default behavior is the
opposite of what the option accomplishes. For example, the documented
existence of follow ftp assumes that the default is to not follow FTP
links from HTML pages.
Affirmative options can be negated by prepending the no to the
option name; negative options can be negated by omitting the no
prefix. This might seem superfluous if the default for an
affirmative option is to not do something, then why provide a way to
explicitly turn it off? But the startup file may in fact change the
default. For instance, using "follow_ftp = on" in .wgetrc makes Wget
follow FTP links by default, and using no follow ftp is the only way
to restore the factory default from the command line.
Basic Startup Options
Display the version of Wget.
Print a help message describing all of Wget's command line options.
Go to background immediately after startup. If no output file is
specified via the o, output is redirected to wget log.
Execute command as if it were a part of .wgetrc. A command thus
invoked will be executed after the commands in .wgetrc, thus taking
precedence over them. If you need to specify more than one wgetrc
command, use multiple instances of e.
Logging and Input File Options
Log all messages to logfile. The messages are normally reported to
Append to logfile. This is the same as o, only it appends to
logfile instead of overwriting the old log file. If logfile does
not exist, a new file is created.
Turn on debug output, meaning various information important to the
developers of Wget if it does not work properly. Your system
administrator may have chosen to compile Wget without debug
support, in which case d will not work. Please note that
compiling with debug support is always safe Wget compiled with
the debug support will not print any debug info unless requested
Turn off Wget's output.
Turn on verbose output, with all the available data. The default
output is verbose.
Turn off verbose without being completely quiet (use q for that),
which means that error messages and basic information still get
Read URLs from a local or external file. If is specified as
file, URLs are read from the standard input. (Use ./ to read from
a file literally named .)
If this function is used, no URLs need be present on the command
line. If there are URLs both on the command line and in an input
file, those on the command lines will be the first ones to be
retrieved. If force html is not specified, then file should
consist of a series of URLs, one per line.
However, if you specify force html, the document will be regarded
as html. In that case you may have problems with relative links,
which you can solve either by adding "
" to the
documents or by specifying base=url on the command line.
If the file is an external one, the document will be automatically
treated as html if the Content Type matches text/html.
Furthermore, the file's location will be implicitly used as base
href if none was specified.
When input is read from a file, force it to be treated as an HTML
file. This enables you to retrieve relative links from existing
HTML files on your local disk, by adding "
HTML, or using the base command line option.
Resolves relative links using URL as the point of reference, when
reading links from an HTML file specified via the i/ input file
option (together with force html, or when the input file was
fetched remotely from a server describing it as HTML). This is
equivalent to the presence of a "BASE" tag in the HTML input file,
with URL as the value for the "href" attribute.
For instance, if you specify http://foo/bar/a.html for URL, and
Wget reads ../baz/b.html from the input file, it would be resolved
When making client TCP/IP connections, bind to ADDRESS on the local
machine. ADDRESS may be specified as a hostname or IP address.
This option can be useful if your machine is bound to multiple IPs.
Set number of retries to number. Specify 0 or inf for infinite
retrying. The default is to retry 20 times, with the exception of
fatal errors like "connection refused" or "not found" (404), which
are not retried.
The documents will not be written to the appropriate files, but all
will be concatenated together and written to file. If is used as
file, documents will be printed to standard output, disabling link
conversion. (Use ./ to print to a file literally named .)
Use of O is not intended to mean simply "use the name file instead
of the one in the URL;" rather, it is analogous to shell
redirection: wget O file http://foo is intended to work like wget
O http://foo > file; file will be truncated immediately, and all
downloaded content will be written there.
For this reason, N (for timestamp checking) is not supported in
combination with O: since file is always newly created, it will
always have a very new timestamp. A warning will be issued if this
combination is used.
Similarly, using r or p with O may not work as you expect: Wget
won't just download the first file to file and then download the
rest to their normal names: all downloaded content will be placed
in file. This was disabled in version 1.11, but has been reinstated
(with a warning) in 1.11.2, as there are some cases where this
behavior can actually have some use.
Note that a combination with k is only permitted when downloading
a single document, as in that case it will just convert all
relative URIs to external ones; k makes no sense for multiple URIs
when they're all being downloaded to a single file.
If a file is downloaded more than once in the same directory,
Wget's behavior depends on a few options, including nc. In
certain cases, the local file will be clobbered, or overwritten,
upon repeated download. In other cases it will be preserved.
When running Wget without N, nc, r, or p, downloading the same
file in the same directory will result in the original copy of file
being preserved and the second copy being named file.1. If that
file is downloaded yet again, the third copy will be named file.2,
and so on. (This is also the behavior with nd, even if r or p
are in effect.) When nc is specified, this behavior is
suppressed, and Wget will refuse to download newer copies of file.
Therefore, ""no clobber"" is actually a misnomer in this
mode it's not clobbering that's prevented (as the numeric
suffixes were already preventing clobbering), but rather the
multiple version saving that's prevented.
When running Wget with r or p, but without N, nd, or nc, re
downloading a file will result in the new copy simply overwriting
the old. Adding nc will prevent this behavior, instead causing
the original version to be preserved and any newer copies on the
server to be ignored.
When running Wget with N, with or without r or p, the decision
as to whether or not to download a newer copy of a file depends on
the local and remote timestamp and size of the file. nc may not
be specified at the same time as N.
Note that when nc is specified, files with the suffixes .html or
.htm will be loaded from the local disk and parsed as if they had
been retrieved from the Web.
Continue getting a partially downloaded file. This is useful when
you want to finish up a download started by a previous instance of
Wget, or by another program. For instance:
wget c ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/ls lR.Z
If there is a file named ls lR.Z in the current directory, Wget
will assume that it is the first portion of the remote file, and
will ask the server to continue the retrieval from an offset equal
to the length of the local file.
Note that you don't need to specify this option if you just want
the current invocation of Wget to retry downloading a file should
the connection be lost midway through. This is the default
behavior. c only affects resumption of downloads started prior to
this invocation of Wget, and whose local files are still sitting
Without c, the previous example would just download the remote
file to ls lR.Z.1, leaving the truncated ls lR.Z file alone.
Beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use c on a non empty file, and it
turns out that the server does not support continued downloading,
Wget will refuse to start the download from scratch, which would
effectively ruin existing contents. If you really want the
download to start from scratch, remove the file.
Also beginning with Wget 1.7, if you use c on a file which is of
equal size as the one on the server, Wget will refuse to download
the file and print an explanatory message. The same happens when
the file is smaller on the server than locally (presumably because
it was changed on the server since your last download
attempt) because "continuing" is not meaningful, no download
On the other side of the coin, while using c, any file that's
bigger on the server than locally will be considered an incomplete
download and only "(length(remote) length(local))" bytes will be
downloaded and tacked onto the end of the local file. This
behavior can be desirable in certain cases for instance, you can
use wget c to download just the new portion that's been appended
to a data collection or log file.
However, if the file is bigger on the server because it's been
changed, as opposed to just appended to, you'll end up with a
garbled file. Wget has no way of verifying that the local file is
really a valid prefix of the remote file. You need to be
especially careful of this when using c in conjunction with r,
since every file will be considered as an "incomplete download"
Another instance where you'll get a garbled file if you try to use
c is if you have a lame HTTP proxy that inserts a "transfer
interrupted" string into the local file. In the future a
"rollback" option may be added to deal with this case.
Note that c only works with FTP servers and with HTTP servers that
support the "Range" header.
Select the type of the progress indicator you wish to use. Legal
indicators are "dot" and "bar".
The "bar" indicator is used by default. It draws an ASCII progress
bar graphics (a.k.a "thermometer" display) indicating the status of
retrieval. If the output is not a TTY, the "dot" bar will be used
Use progress=dot to switch to the "dot" display. It traces the
retrieval by printing dots on the screen, each dot representing a
fixed amount of downloaded data.
When using the dotted retrieval, you may also set the style by
specifying the type as dot:style. Different styles assign
different meaning to one dot. With the "default" style each dot
represents 1K, there are ten dots in a cluster and 50 dots in a
line. The "binary" style has a more "computer" like
orientation 8K dots, 16 dots clusters and 48 dots per line (which
makes for 384K lines). The "mega" style is suitable for
downloading very large files each dot represents 64K retrieved,
there are eight dots in a cluster, and 48 dots on each line (so
each line contains 3M).
Note that you can set the default style using the "progress"
command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the
command line. The exception is that, when the output is not a TTY,
the "dot" progress will be favored over "bar". To force the bar
output, use progress=bar:force.
Turn on time stamping.
Print the headers sent by HTTP servers and responses sent by FTP
When invoked with this option, Wget will behave as a Web spider,
which means that it will not download the pages, just check that
they are there. For example, you can use Wget to check your
wget spider force html i bookmarks.html
This feature needs much more work for Wget to get close to the
functionality of real web spiders.
Set the network timeout to seconds seconds. This is equivalent to
specifying dns timeout, connect timeout, and read timeout,
all at the same time.
When interacting with the network, Wget can check for timeout and
abort the operation if it takes too long. This prevents anomalies
like hanging reads and infinite connects. The only timeout enabled
by default is a 900 second read timeout. Setting a timeout to 0
disables it altogether. Unless you know what you are doing, it is
best not to change the default timeout settings.
All timeout related options accept decimal values, as well as
subsecond values. For example, 0.1 seconds is a legal (though
unwise) choice of timeout. Subsecond timeouts are useful for
checking server response times or for testing network latency.
Set the DNS lookup timeout to seconds seconds. DNS lookups that
don't complete within the specified time will fail. By default,
there is no timeout on DNS lookups, other than that implemented by
Set the connect timeout to seconds seconds. TCP connections that
take longer to establish will be aborted. By default, there is no
connect timeout, other than that implemented by system libraries.
Set the read (and write) timeout to seconds seconds. The "time" of
this timeout refers to idle time: if, at any point in the download,
no data is received for more than the specified number of seconds,
reading fails and the download is restarted. This option does not
directly affect the duration of the entire download.
Of course, the remote server may choose to terminate the connection
sooner than this option requires. The default read timeout is 900
Limit the download speed to amount bytes per second. Amount may be
expressed in bytes, kilobytes with the k suffix, or megabytes with
the m suffix. For example, limit rate=20k will limit the
retrieval rate to 20KB/s. This is useful when, for whatever
reason, you don't want Wget to consume the entire available
This option allows the use of decimal numbers, usually in
conjunction with power suffixes; for example, limit rate=2.5k is
a legal value.
Note that Wget implements the limiting by sleeping the appropriate
amount of time after a network read that took less time than
specified by the rate. Eventually this strategy causes the TCP
transfer to slow down to approximately the specified rate.
However, it may take some time for this balance to be achieved, so
don't be surprised if limiting the rate doesn't work well with very
Wait the specified number of seconds between the retrievals. Use
of this option is recommended, as it lightens the server load by
making the requests less frequent. Instead of in seconds, the time
can be specified in minutes using the "m" suffix, in hours using
"h" suffix, or in days using "d" suffix.
Specifying a large value for this option is useful if the network
or the destination host is down, so that Wget can wait long enough
to reasonably expect the network error to be fixed before the
retry. The waiting interval specified by this function is
influenced by " random wait", which see.
If you don't want Wget to wait between every retrieval, but only
between retries of failed downloads, you can use this option. Wget
will use linear backoff, waiting 1 second after the first failure
on a given file, then waiting 2 seconds after the second failure on
that file, up to the maximum number of seconds you specify.
Therefore, a value of 10 will actually make Wget wait up to (1 + 2
+ ... + 10) = 55 seconds per file.
By default, Wget will assume a value of 10 seconds.
Some web sites may perform log analysis to identify retrieval
programs such as Wget by looking for statistically significant
similarities in the time between requests. This option causes the
time between requests to vary between 0.5 and 1.5 * wait seconds,
where wait was specified using the wait option, in order to mask
Wget's presence from such analysis.
A 2001 article in a publication devoted to development on a popular
consumer platform provided code to perform this analysis on the
fly. Its author suggested blocking at the class C address level to
ensure automated retrieval programs were blocked despite changing
DHCP supplied addresses.
The random wait option was inspired by this ill advised
recommendation to block many unrelated users from a web site due to
the actions of one.
Don't use proxies, even if the appropriate *_proxy environment
variable is defined.
Specify download quota for automatic retrievals. The value can be
specified in bytes (default), kilobytes (with k suffix), or
megabytes (with m suffix).
Note that quota will never affect downloading a single file. So if
you specify wget Q10k ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/ls lR.gz, all of
the ls lR.gz will be downloaded. The same goes even when several
URLs are specified on the command line. However, quota is
respected when retrieving either recursively, or from an input
file. Thus you may safely type wget Q2m i sites download will
be aborted when the quota is exceeded.
Setting quota to 0 or to inf unlimits the download quota.
no dns cache
Turn off caching of DNS lookups. Normally, Wget remembers the IP
addresses it looked up from DNS so it doesn't have to repeatedly
contact the DNS server for the same (typically small) set of hosts
it retrieves from. This cache exists in memory only; a new Wget
run will contact DNS again.
However, it has been reported that in some situations it is not
desirable to cache host names, even for the duration of a short
running application like Wget. With this option Wget issues a new
DNS lookup (more precisely, a new call to "gethostbyname" or
"getaddrinfo") each time it makes a new connection. Please note
that this option will not affect caching that might be performed by
the resolving library or by an external caching layer, such as
If you don't understand exactly what this option does, you probably
won't need it.
restrict file names=modes
Change which characters found in remote URLs must be escaped during
generation of local filenames. Characters that are restricted by
this option are escaped, i.e. replaced with %HH, where HH is the
hexadecimal number that corresponds to the restricted character.
This option may also be used to force all alphabetical cases to be
either lower or uppercase.
By default, Wget escapes the characters that are not valid or safe
as part of file names on your operating system, as well as control
characters that are typically unprintable. This option is useful
for changing these defaults, perhaps because you are downloading to
a non native partition, or because you want to disable escaping of
the control characters, or you want to further restrict characters
to only those in the ASCII range of values.
The modes are a comma separated set of text values. The acceptable
values are unix, windows, nocontrol, ascii, lowercase, and
uppercase. The values unix and windows are mutually exclusive (one
will override the other), as are lowercase and uppercase. Those
last are special cases, as they do not change the set of characters
that would be escaped, but rather force local file paths to be
converted either to lower or uppercase.
When "unix" is specified, Wget escapes the character / and the
control characters in the ranges 0 31 and 128 159. This is the
default on Unix like operating systems.
When "windows" is given, Wget escapes the characters \, |, /, :, ?,
", *, <, >, and the control characters in the ranges 0 31 and
128 159. In addition to this, Wget in Windows mode uses + instead
of : to separate host and port in local file names, and uses @
instead of ? to separate the query portion of the file name from
the rest. Therefore, a URL that would be saved as
www.xemacs.org:4300/search.pl?input=blah in Unix mode would be
saved as www.xemacs.org+4300/search.pl@input=blah in Windows mode.
This mode is the default on Windows.
If you specify nocontrol, then the escaping of the control
characters is also switched off. This option may make sense when
you are downloading URLs whose names contain UTF 8 characters, on a
system which can save and display filenames in UTF 8 (some possible
byte values used in UTF 8 byte sequences fall in the range of
values designated by Wget as "controls").
The ascii mode is used to specify that any bytes whose values are
outside the range of ASCII characters (that is, greater than 127)
shall be escaped. This can be useful when saving filenames whose
encoding does not match the one used locally.
Force connecting to IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. With inet4 only or
4, Wget will only connect to IPv4 hosts, ignoring AAAA records in
DNS, and refusing to connect to IPv6 addresses specified in URLs.
Conversely, with inet6 only or 6, Wget will only connect to IPv6
hosts and ignore A records and IPv4 addresses.
Neither options should be needed normally. By default, an
IPv6 aware Wget will use the address family specified by the host's
DNS record. If the DNS responds with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses,
Wget will try them in sequence until it finds one it can connect
to. (Also see " prefer family" option described below.)
These options can be used to deliberately force the use of IPv4 or
IPv6 address families on dual family systems, usually to aid
debugging or to deal with broken network configuration. Only one
of inet6 only and inet4 only may be specified at the same time.
Neither option is available in Wget compiled without IPv6 support.
When given a choice of several addresses, connect to the addresses
with specified address family first. The address order returned by
DNS is used without change by default.
This avoids spurious errors and connect attempts when accessing
hosts that resolve to both IPv6 and IPv4 addresses from IPv4
networks. For example, www.kame.net resolves to
2001:200:0:8002:203:47ff:fea5:3085 and to 188.8.131.52. When
the preferred family is "IPv4", the IPv4 address is used first;
when the preferred family is "IPv6", the IPv6 address is used
first; if the specified value is "none", the address order returned
by DNS is used without change.
Unlike 4 and 6, this option doesn't inhibit access to any address
family, it only changes the order in which the addresses are
accessed. Also note that the reordering performed by this option
is stable it doesn't affect order of addresses of the same
family. That is, the relative order of all IPv4 addresses and of
all IPv6 addresses remains intact in all cases.
Consider "connection refused" a transient error and try again.
Normally Wget gives up on a URL when it is unable to connect to the
site because failure to connect is taken as a sign that the server
is not running at all and that retries would not help. This option
is for mirroring unreliable sites whose servers tend to disappear
for short periods of time.
Specify the username user and password password for both FTP and
HTTP file retrieval. These parameters can be overridden using the
ftp user and ftp password options for FTP connections and the
http user and http password options for HTTP connections.
Prompt for a password for each connection established. Cannot be
specified when password is being used, because they are mutually
Turn off internationalized URI (IRI) support. Use iri to turn it
on. IRI support is activated by default.
You can set the default state of IRI support using the "iri"
command in .wgetrc. That setting may be overridden from the command
Force Wget to use encoding as the default system encoding. That
affects how Wget converts URLs specified as a