man ghostscript Command

Man page for apt-get ghostscript Command

Man Page for ghostscript in Linux

Ubuntu Man Command : man ghostscript

Man Ghostscript  Command

This tutorial shows the man page for man ghostscript in linux.

Open terminal with 'su' access and type the command as shown below:
man ghostscript

Result of the Command Execution shown below:

GS(1)                                                                        Ghostscript                                                                       GS(1)

gs Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)

gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)

The gs (gswin32c, gswin32, gsos2) command invokes Ghostscript, an interpreter of Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document Format (PDF) languages.
gs reads "files" in sequence and executes them as Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further input from the standard input stream (normally the
keyboard), interpreting each line separately. The interpreter exits gracefully when it encounters the "quit" command (either in a file or from the keyboard),
at end of file, or at an interrupt signal (such as Control C at the keyboard).

The interpreter recognizes many option switches, some of which are described below. Please see the usage documentation for complete information. Switches may
appear anywhere in the command line and apply to all files thereafter. Invoking Ghostscript with the h or ? switch produces a message which shows several
useful switches, all the devices known to that executable, and the search path for fonts; on Unix it also shows the location of detailed documentation.

Ghostscript may be built to use many different output devices. To see which devices your executable includes, run "gs h". Unless you specify a particular
device, Ghostscript normally opens the first one of those and directs output to it, so if the first one in the list is the one you want to use, just issue
the command


You can also check the set of available devices from within Ghostscript: invoke Ghostscript and type

devicenames ==

but the first device on the resulting list may not be the default device you determine with "gs h". To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial output device,
include the switch


For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command

gs sDEVICE=epson

The " sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first mention of a file to print, and only the switch's first use has any effect.

Finally, you can specify a default device in the environment variable GS_DEVICE. The order of precedence for these alternatives from highest to lowest
(Ghostscript uses the device defined highest in the list) is:

Some devices can support different resolutions (densities). To specify the resolution on such a printer, use the " r" switch:

gs sDEVICE=<device> r<xres>x<yres>

For example, on a 9 pin Epson compatible printer, you get the lowest density (fastest) mode with

gs sDEVICE=epson r60x72

and the highest density (best output quality) mode with

gs sDEVICE=epson r240x72.

If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows you to choose where Ghostscript sends the output on Unix systems, usually to a tem Äê
porary file. To send the output to a file "", use the switch

You might want to print each page separately. To do this, send the output to a series of files ",, ..." using the " sOutputFile=" switch
with "%d" in a filename template:

Each resulting file receives one page of output, and the files are numbered in sequence. "%d" is a printf format specification; you can also use a variant
like "%02d".

On Unix and MS Windows systems you can also send output to a pipe. For example, to pipe output to the "lpr" command (which, on many Unix systems, directs it
to a printer), use the option


Note that the '%' characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to avoid mangling by the command interpreter.

You can also send output to standard output:


In this case you must also use the q switch, to prevent Ghostscript from writing messages to standard output.

To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch


for instance


Most ISO and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documentation for a full list, or the definitions in the initialization file "".

Ghostscript can do many things other than print or view PostScript and PDF files. For example, if you want to know the bounding box of a PostScript (or EPS)
file, Ghostscript provides a special "device" that just prints out this information.

For example, using one of the example files distributed with Ghostscript,

gs sDEVICE=bbox

prints out

%%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
%%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445

filename arg1 ...
Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all remaining arguments (even if they have the syntactic form of switches) and defines the
name "ARGUMENTS" in "userdict" (not "systemdict") as an array of those strings, before running the file. When Ghostscript finishes executing the
file, it exits back to the shell.

Define a name in "systemdict" with the given definition. The token must be exactly one token (as defined by the "token" operator) and may contain no

dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

Define a name in "systemdict" with a given string as value. This is different from d. For example, dname=35 is equivalent to the program fragment
/name 35 def
whereas sname=35 is equivalent to
/name (35) def

q Quiet startup: suppress normal startup messages, and also do the equivalent of dQUIET.

Equivalent to dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2. This is for the benefit of devices (such as X11 windows) that require (or allow)
width and height to be specified.

Equivalent to dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2. This is for the benefit of devices such as printers that support multiple
X and Y resolutions. If only one number is given, it is used for both X and Y resolutions.

Adds the designated list of directories at the head of the search path for library files.

This is not really a switch, but indicates to Ghostscript that standard input is coming from a file or a pipe and not interactively from the command
line. Ghostscript reads from standard input until it reaches end of file, executing it like any other file, and then continues with processing the
command line. When the command line has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits rather than going into its interactive mode.

Note that the normal initialization file "" makes "systemdict" read only, so the values of names defined with D, d, S, or s cannot be changed
(although, of course, they can be superseded by definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)

Causes individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk the first time they are encountered. (Normally Ghostscript loads all the character
outlines when it loads a font.) This may allow loading more fonts into RAM, at the expense of slower rendering.

Disables character caching. Useful only for debugging.

Disables the "bind" operator. Useful only for debugging.

Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device. This may be useful when debugging.

Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page. This may be desirable for applications where another program is driving Ghostscript.

Disables the use of fonts supplied by the underlying platform (for instance X Windows). This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably dif Äê
ferent from the scalable fonts.

Disables the "deletefile" and "renamefile" operators and the ability to open files in any mode other than read only. This strongly recommended for
spoolers, conversion scripts or other sensitive environments where a badly written or malicious PostScript program code must be prevented from chang Äê
ing important files.

Leaves "systemdict" writable. This is necessary when running special utility programs such as font2c and pcharstr, which must bypass normal Post Äê
Script access protection.

Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

Selects an alternate output file (or pipe) for the initial output device, as described above.

The locations of many Ghostscript run time files are compiled into the executable when it is built. On Unix these are typically based in /usr/local, but
this may be different on your system. Under DOS they are typically based in C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, especially if you install Ghostscript with GSview.
Run "gs h" to find the location of Ghostscript documentation on your system, from which you can get more details. On a Debian system they are in /usr.


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