man duplicity Command

Man page for apt-get duplicity Command

Man Page for duplicity in Linux

Ubuntu Man Command : man duplicity

Man Duplicity  Command

This tutorial shows the man page for man duplicity in linux.

Open terminal with 'su' access and type the command as shown below:
man duplicity

Result of the Command Execution shown below:

DUPLICITY(1)                                                                User Manuals                                                                DUPLICITY(1)

duplicity Encrypted backup using rsync algorithm

duplicity [options] source_directory target_url

duplicity [options] source_url target_directory

duplicity full [options] source_directory target_url

duplicity incremental [options] source_directory target_url

duplicity restore [options] source_url target_directory

duplicity verify [options] source_url target_directory

duplicity collection status [options] target_url

duplicity list current files [options] target_url

duplicity cleanup [options] [ force] target_url

duplicity remove older than time [options] [ force] target_url

duplicity remove all but n full count [options] [ force] target_url

Duplicity incrementally backs up files and directory by encrypting tar format volumes with GnuPG and uploading them to a remote (or local) file server. Cur
rently local, ftp, ssh/scp, rsync, WebDAV, WebDAVs, HSi and Amazon S3 backends are available. Because duplicity uses librsync, the incremental archives are
space efficient and only record the parts of files that have changed since the last backup. Currently duplicity supports deleted files, full Unix permis
sions, directories, symbolic links, fifos, etc., but not hard links.

Duplicity will read the PASSPHRASE environment variable to find the passphrase to give to GnuPG. If this is not set, the user will be prompted for the

If you are backing up the root directory /, remember to exclude /proc, or else duplicity will probably crash on the weird stuff in there.

Here is an example of a backup, using scp to back up /home/me to some_dir on the machine:

duplicity /home/me scp://

If the above is run repeatedly, the first will be a full backup, and subsequent ones will be incremental. To force a full backup, use the full action:

duplicity full /home/me scp://

Now suppose we accidentally delete /home/me and want to restore it the way it was at the time of last backup:

duplicity scp:// /home/me

Duplicity enters restore mode because the URL comes before the local directory. If we wanted to restore just the file "Mail/article" in /home/me as it was
three days ago into /home/me/restored_file:

duplicity t 3D file to restore Mail/article scp:// /home/me/restored_file

The following command compares the files we backed up, so see what has changed since then:

duplicity verify scp:// /home/me

Finally, duplicity recognizes several include/exclude options. For instance, the following will backup the root directory, but exclude /mnt, /tmp, and

duplicity exclude /mnt exclude /tmp exclude /proc / file:///usr/local/backup

Note that in this case the destination is the local directory /usr/local/backup. The following will backup only the /home and /etc directories under root:

duplicity include /home include /etc exclude '**' / file:///usr/local/backup

Duplicity can also access a repository via ftp. If a user name is given, the environment variable FTP_PASSWORD is read to determine the password:

FTP_PASSWORD=mypassword duplicity /local/dir

Delete the extraneous duplicity files on the given backend. Non duplicity files, or files in complete data sets will not be deleted. This should
only be necessary after a duplicity session fails or is aborted prematurely. Note that force will be needed to delete the files rather than just
list them.

collection status
Summarize the status of the backup repository by printing the chains and sets found, and the number of volumes in each.

full Indicate full backup. If this is set, perform full backup even if signatures are available.

incr If this is requested an incremental backup will be performed. Duplicity will abort if old signatures cannot be found. The default is to switch to
full backup under these conditions.

list current files
Lists the files currently backed up in the archive. The information will be extracted from the signature files, not the archive data itself. Thus
the whole archive does not have to be downloaded, but on the other hand if the archive has been deleted or corrupted, this command may not detect it.

remove older than time
Delete all backup sets older than the given time. Old backup sets will not be deleted if backup sets newer than time depend on them. See the TIME
FORMATS section for more information. Note, this action cannot be combined with backup or other actions, such as cleanup. Note also that force
will be needed to delete the files rather than just list them.

remove all but n full count
Delete all backups sets that are older than the count:th last full backup (in other words, keep the last count full backups and associated incremental
sets). count must be larger than zero. A value of 1 means that only the single most recent backup chain will be kept. Note that force will be
needed to delete the files rather than just list them.

verify Enter verify mode instead of restore. If the file to restore option is given, restrict verify to that file or directory. duplicity will exit with
a non zero error level if any files are different. On verbosity level 4 or higher, log a message for each file that has changed.

allow source mismatch
Do not abort on attempts to use the same archive dir or remote backend to back up different directories. duplicity will tell you if you need this

archive dir path
The archive directory. NOTE: This option changed in 0.6.0. The archive directory is now necessary in order to manage persistence for current and
future enhancements. As such, this option is now used only to change the location of the archive directory. The archive directory should not be
deleted, or duplicity will have to recreate it from the remote repository (which may require decrypting the backup contents).

When backing up or restoring, this option specifies that the local archive directory is to be created in path. If the archive directory is not speci
fied, the default will be to create the archive directory in ~/.cache/duplicity/.

The archive directory can be shared between backups to multiple targets, because a subdirectory of the archive dir is used for individual backups (see
name ).

The combination of archive directory and backup name must be unique in order to separate the data of different backups.

The interaction between the archive dir and the name options allows for four possible combinations for the location of the archive dir:

1. neither specified (default)
~/.cache/duplicity/hash of url

2. archive dir=/arch, no name
/arch/hash of url

3. no archive dir, name=foo

4. archive dir=/arch, name=foo

asynchronous upload
(EXPERIMENTAL) Perform file uploads asynchronously in the background, with respect to volume creation. This means that duplicity can upload a volume
while, at the same time, preparing the next volume for upload. The intended end result is a faster backup, because the local CPU and your bandwidth
can be more consistently utilized. Use of this option implies additional need for disk space in the temporary storage location; rather than needing to
store only one volume at a time, enough storage space is required to store two volumes.

dry run
Calculate what would be done, but do not perform any backend actions

encrypt key key
When backing up, encrypt to the given public key, instead of using symmetric (traditional) encryption. Can be specified multiple times.

exclude shell_pattern
Exclude the file or files matched by shell_pattern. If a directory is matched, then files under that directory will also be matched. See the FILE
SELECTION section for more information.

exclude device files
Exclude all device files. This can be useful for security/permissions reasons or if rdiff backup is not handling device files correctly.

exclude filelist filename
Excludes the files listed in filename. See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

exclude filelist stdin
Like exclude filelist, but the list of files will be read from standard input. See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

exclude globbing filelist filename
Like exclude filelist but each line of the filelist will be interpreted according to the same rules as include and exclude.

exclude if present filename
Exclude directories if filename is present. This option needs to come before any other include or exclude options.

exclude other filesystems
Exclude files on file systems (identified by device number) other than the file system the root of the source directory is on.

exclude regexp regexp
Exclude files matching the given regexp. Unlike the exclude option, this option does not match files in a directory it matches. See the FILE
SELECTION section for more information.

extra clean
When cleaning up, be more aggressive about saving space. For example, this may delete signature files for old backup chains. See the cleanup argu
ment for more information.

file to restore path
This option may be given in restore mode, causing only path to be restored instead of the entire contents of the backup archive. path should be given
relative to the root of the directory backed up.

full if older than time
Perform a full backup if an incremental backup is requested, but the latest full backup in the collection is older than the given time. See the TIME
FORMATS section for more information.

Proceed even if data loss might result. Duplicity will let the user know when this option is required.

ftp passive
Use passive (PASV) data connections. The default is to use passive, but to fallback to regular if the passive connection fails or times out.

ftp regular
Use regular (PORT) data connections.

gio Use the GIO backend and interpret any URLs as GIO would.

ignore errors
Try to ignore certain errors if they happen. This option is only intended to allow the restoration of a backup in the face of certain problems that
would otherwise cause the backup to fail. It is not ever recommended to use this option unless you have a situation where you are trying to restore
from backup and it is failing because of an issue which you want duplicity to ignore. Even then, depending on the issue, this option may not have an

Please note that while ignored errors will be logged, there will be no summary at the end of the operation to tell you what was ignored, if anything.
If this is used for emergency restoration of data, it is recommended that you run the backup in such a way that you can revisit the backup log (look
for lines containing the string IGNORED_ERROR).

If you ever have to use this option for reasons that are not understood or understood but not your own responsibility, please contact duplicity main
tainers. The need to use this option under production circumstances would normally be considered a bug.

imap mailbox option
Allows you to specify a different mailbox. The default is "INBOX". Other languages may require a different mailbox than the default.

gpg options options
Allows you to pass options to gpg encryption. The options list should be of the form "opt1=parm1 opt2=parm2" where the string is quoted and the only
spaces allowed are between options.

include shell_pattern
Similar to exclude but include matched files instead. Unlike exclude, this option will also match parent directories of matched files (although
not necessarily their contents). See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

include filelist filename
Like exclude filelist, but include the listed files instead. See the FILE SELECTION section for more information.

include filelist stdin
Like include filelist, but read the list of included files from standard input.

include globbing filelist filename
Like include filelist but each line of the filelist will be interpreted according to the same rules as include and exclude.

include regexp regexp
Include files matching the regular expression regexp. Only files explicitly matched by regexp will be included by this option. See the FILE SELEC
TION section for more information.

log fd number
Write specially formatted versions of output messages to the specified file descriptor. The format used is designed to be easily consumable by other

log file filename
Write specially formatted versions of output messages to the specified file. The format used is designed to be easily consumable by other programs.

name symbolicname
Set the symbolic name of the backup being operated on. The intent is to use a separate name for each logically distinct backup. For example, someone
may use "home_daily_s3" for the daily backup of a home directory to Amazon S3. The structure of the name is up to the user, it is only important that
the names be distinct. The symbolic name is currently only used to affect the expansion of archive dir , but may be used for additional features in
the future. Users running more than one distinct backup are encouraged to use this option.

If not specified, the default value is a hash of the backend URL.

no encryption
Do not use GnuPG to encrypt files on remote system. Instead just write gzipped volumes.

no print statistics
By default duplicity will print statistics about the current session after a successful backup. This switch disables that behavior.

null separator
Use nulls () instead of newlines (
) as line separators, which may help when dealing with filenames containing newlines. This affects the expected
format of the files specified by the {include|exclude} filelist[ stdin] switches as well as the format of the directory statistics file.

num retries number
Number of retries to make on errors before giving up.

old filenames
Use the old filename format (incompatible with Windows/Samba) rather than the new filename format.

rename orig new
Treats the path orig in the backup as if it were the path new. Can be passed multiple times. An example:

duplicity restore rename Documents/metal Music/metal scp:// /home/me

s3 european buckets
When using the Amazon S3 backend, create buckets in Europe instead of the default (requires s3 use new style ). Also see the EUROPEAN S3 BUCKETS

s3 use new style
When operating on Amazon S3 buckets, use new style subdomain bucket addressing. This is now the preferred method to access Amazon S3, but is not back
wards compatible if your bucket name contains upper case characters or other characters that are not valid in a hostname.

scp command command
This option only matters when using the ssh/scp backend. The command will be used instead of scp to send or receive files. The default command is
"scp". To list and delete existing files, the sftp command is used. See ssh options and sftp command.

sftp command command
This option only matters when using the ssh/scp backend. The command will be used instead of sftp for listing and deleting files. The default is
"sftp". File transfers are done using the sftp command. See ssh options, use scp, and scp command.

sign key key
This option can be used when backing up or restoring. When backing up, all backup files will be signed with keyid key. When restoring, duplicity
will signal an error if any remote file is not signed with the given keyid. key should be an 8 character hex string, like AA0E73D2.

ssh askpass
Tells the ssh/scp backend to use FTP_PASSWORD from the environment, or, if that is not present, to prompt the user for the remote system password.

ssh options options
Allows you to pass options to the ssh/scp/sftp backend. The options list should be of the form "opt1=parm1 opt2=parm2" where the option string is
quoted and the only spaces allowed are between options. The option string will be passed verbatim to both scp and sftp, whose command line syntax dif
fers slightly: options passed with ssh options should therefore be given in the long option format described in ssh_config(5), like in this example:

duplicity ssh options=" oProtocol=2 oIdentityFile=/my/backup/id" /home/me scp://

short filenames
If this option is specified, the names of the files duplicity writes will be shorter (about 30 chars) but less understandable. This may be useful
when backing up to MacOS or another OS or FS that doesn't support long filenames.

tempdir directory
Use this existing directory for duplicity temporary files instead of the system default, which is usually the /tmp directory. This option supersedes
any environment variable.

ttime, time time, restore time time
Specify the time from which to restore or list files.

time separator char
Use char as the time separator in filenames instead of colon (":").

use agent
If this option is specified, then use agent is passed to the GnuPG encryption process and it will turn off any passphrase interaction with the user
with respect to encrypt key or sign key.

use scp
If this option is specified, then the ssh backend will use scp rather than sftp for the get and put backend operations. The default is to use sftp
for all operations. With this option, duplicity will use sftp for list and delete operations, and scp for put and get operations

vverb, verbosity verb
Specify verbosity level (0 is total silent, 4 is the default, and 9 is noisiest). Verbosity may also be one of: character ewnid, or word error, warn
ing, notice, info, debug. The default is 4 (Notice). The options v4, vn, and vnotice are functionally equivalent, as are the mixed/upper case
versions, vN, vNotice, and vNOTICE.

Print duplicity's version and quit.

volsize number
Change the volume size to number Mb. Default is 25Mb.

Duplicity tries to maintain a standard URL format as much as possible. The generic format for a URL is:


It is not recommended to expose the password on the command line since it could be revealed to anyone with permissions to do process listings, however, it is

In protocols that support it, the path may be preceded by a single slash, '/path', to represent a relative path to the target home directory, or preceded by
a double slash, '//path', to represent an absolute filesystem path.

Formats of each of the URL schemes follow:

















duplicity uses time strings in two places. Firstly, many of the files duplicity creates will have the time in their filenames in the w3 datetime format as
described in a w3 note at datetime. Basically they look like "2001 07 15T04:09:38 07:00", which means what it looks like. The
" 07:00" section means the time zone is 7 hours behind UTC.

Secondly, the t, time, and restore time options take a time string, which can be given in any of several formats:

1. the string "now" (refers to the current time)

2. a sequences of digits, like "123456890" (indicating the time in seconds after the epoch)

3. A string like "2002 01 25T07:00:00+02:00" in datetime format

4. An interval, which is a number followed by one of the characters s, m, h, D, W, M, or Y (indicating seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or
years respectively), or a series of such pairs. In this case the string refers to the time that preceded the current time by the length of the inter
val. For instance, "1h78m" indicates the time that was one hour and 78 minutes ago. The calendar here is unsophisticated: a month is always 30 days,
a year is always 365 days, and a day is always 86400 seconds.

5. A date format of the form YYYY/MM/DD, YYYY MM DD, MM/DD/YYYY, or MM DD YYYY, which indicates midnight on the day in question, relative to the current
time zone settings. For instance, "2002/3/5", "03 05 2002", and "2002 3 05" all mean March 5th, 2002.

duplicity accepts the same file selection options rdiff backup does, including exclude, exclude filelist stdin, etc.

When duplicity is run, it searches through the given source directory and backs up all the files specified by the file selection system. The file selection
system comprises a number of file selection conditions, which are set using one of the following command line options: exclude, exclude device files,
exclude filelist, exclude filelist stdin, exclude globbing filelist, exclude regexp, include, include filelist, include filelist stdin,
include globbing filelist, and include regexp. Each file selection condition either matches or doesn't match a given file. A given file is excluded by
the file selection system exactly when the first matching file selection condition specifies that the file be excluded; otherwise the file is included.

For instance,

duplicity include /usr exclude /usr /usr scp://user@host/backup

is exactly the same as

duplicity /usr scp://user@host/backup

because the include and exclude directives match exactly the same files, and the include comes first, giving it precedence. Similarly,

duplicity include /usr/local/bin exclude /usr/local /usr scp://user@host/backup

would backup the /usr/local/bin directory (and its contents), but not /usr/local/doc.

The include, exclude, include globbing filelist, and exclude globbing filelist options accept extended shell globbing patterns. These patterns can contain
the special patterns *, **, ?, and [...]. As in a normal shell, * can be expanded to any string of characters not containing "/", ? expands to any charac
ter except "/", and [...] expands to a single character of those characters specified (ranges are acceptable). The new special pattern, **, expands to any
string of characters whether or not it contains "/". Furthermore, if the pattern starts with "ignorecase:" (case insensitive), then this prefix will be
removed and any character in the string can be replaced with an upper or lowercase version of itself.

Remember that you may need to quote these characters when typing them into a shell, so the shell does not interpret the globbing patterns before duplicity
sees them.

The exclude pattern option matches a file iff:

1. pattern can be expanded into the file's filename, or

2. the file is inside a directory matched by the option.

Conversely, include pattern matches a file iff:

1. pattern can be expanded into the file's filename,

2. the file is inside a directory matched by the option, or

3. the file is a directory which contains a file matched by the option.

For example,

exclude /usr/local

matches /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and /usr/local/lib/netscape. It is the same as exclude /usr/local exclude '/usr/local/**'.

include /usr/local

specifies that /usr, /usr/local, /usr/local/lib, and /usr/local/lib/netscape (but not /usr/doc) all be backed up. Thus you don't have to worry about includ
ing parent directories to make sure that included subdirectories have somewhere to go. Finally,

include ignorecase:'/usr/[a z0 9]foo/*/**.py'

would match a file like /usR/5fOO/hello/there/ If it did match anything, it would also match /usr. If there is no existing file that the given
pattern can be expanded into, the option will not match /usr.

The include filelist, exclude filelist, include filelist stdin, and exclude filelist stdin options also introduce file selection conditions. They
direct duplicity to read in a file, each line of which is a file specification, and to include or exclude the matching files. Lines are separated by new
lines or nulls, depending on whether the null separator switch was given. Each line in a filelist is interpreted similarly to the way extended shell pat
terns are, with a few exceptions:

1. Globbing patterns like *, **, ?, and [...] are not expanded.

2. Include patterns do not match files in a directory that is included. So /usr/local in an include file will not match /usr/local/doc.

3. Lines starting with "+ " are interpreted as include directives, even if found in a filelist referenced by exclude filelist. Similarly, lines start
ing with " " exclude files even if they are found within an include filelist.

For example, if file "list.txt" contains the lines:

+ /var

then " include filelist list.txt" would include /usr, /usr/local, and /usr/local/bin. It would exclude /usr/local/doc, /usr/local/doc/python, etc. It nei
ther excludes nor includes /usr/local/man, leaving the fate of this directory to the next specification condition. Finally, it is undefined what happens
with /var. A single file list should not contain conflicting file specifications.

The include globbing filelist and exclude globbing filelist options also specify filelists, but each line in the filelist will be interpreted as a glob
bing pattern the way include and exclude options are interpreted (although "+ " and " " prefixing is still allowed). For instance, if the file "glob
bing list.txt" contains the lines:

+ dir/bar

Then " include globbing filelist globbing list.txt" would be exactly the same as specifying " include dir/foo include dir/bar exclude **" on the com
mand line.

Finally, the include regexp and exclude regexp allow files to be included and excluded if their filenames match a python regular expression. Regular
expression syntax is too complicated to explain here, but is covered in Python's library reference. Unlike the include and exclude options, the regular
expression options don't match files containing or contained in matched files. So for instance

include '[0 9]{7}(?!foo)'

matches any files whose full pathnames contain 7 consecutive digits which aren't followed by 'foo'. However, it wouldn't match /home even if
/home/ben/1234567 existed.

This section describes duplicity's basic operation and the format of its data files. It should not necessary to read this section to use duplicity.

The files used by duplicity to store backup data are tarfiles in GNU tar format. They can be produced independently by rdiffdir(1). For incremental back
ups, new files are saved normally in the tarfile. But when a file changes, instead of storing a complete copy of the file, only a diff is stored, as gener
ated by rdiff(1). If a file is deleted, a 0 length file is stored in the tar. It is possible to restore a duplicity archive "manually" by using tar and
then cp, rdiff, and rm as necessary. These duplicity archives have the extension difftar.

Both full and incremental backup sets have the same format. In effect, a full backup set is an incremental one generated from an empty signature (see
below). The files in full backup sets will start with duplicity full while the incremental sets start with duplicity inc. When restoring, duplicity applies
patches in order, so deleting, for instance, a full backup set may make related incremental backup sets unusable.

In order to determine which files have been deleted, and to calculate diffs for changed files, duplicity needs to process information about previous ses
sions. It stores this information in the form of tarfiles where each entry's data contains the signature (as produced by rdiff) of the file instead of the
file's contents. These signature sets have the extension sigtar.

Signature files are not required to restore a backup set, but without an up to date signature, duplicity cannot append an incremental backup to an existing

To save bandwidth, duplicity generates full signature sets and incremental signature sets. A full signature set is generated for each full backup, and an
incremental one for each incremental backup. These

Related Topics

Apt Get Commands