man avrdude Command

Man page for apt-get avrdude Command

Man Page for avrdude in Linux

Ubuntu Man Command : man avrdude

Man Avrdude  Command

This tutorial shows the man page for man avrdude in linux.

Open terminal with 'su' access and type the command as shown below:
man avrdude

Result of the Command Execution shown below:

AVRDUDE(1)                                                           BSD General Commands Manual                                                          AVRDUDE(1)

avrdude driver program for ``simple'' Atmel AVR MCU programmer

avrdude p partno [ b baudrate] [ B bitclock] [ c programmer id] [ C config file] [ D] [ e] [ E exitspec[,exitspec]] [ F] [ i delay] [ n] [ O] [ P port] [ q]
[ s] [ t] [ u] [ U memtype:op:filename:filefmt] [ v] [ x extended_param] [ V] [ y] [ Y]

Avrdude is a program for downloading code and data to Atmel AVR microcontrollers. Avrdude supports Atmel's STK500 programmer, Atmel's AVRISP and AVRISP mkII
devices, Atmel's STK600, Atmel's JTAG ICE (both mkI and mkII, the latter also in ISP mode), programmers complying to AppNote AVR910 and AVR109 (including the
Butterfly), as well as a simple hard wired programmer connected directly to a ppi(4) or parport(4) parallel port, or to a standard serial port. In the sim
plest case, the hardware consists just of a cable connecting the respective AVR signal lines to the parallel port.

The MCU is programmed in serial programming mode, so, for the ppi(4) based programmer, the MCU signals '/RESET', 'SCK', 'MISO' and 'MOSI' need to be connected
to the parallel port. Optionally, some otherwise unused output pins of the parallel port can be used to supply power for the MCU part, so it is also possible
to construct a passive stand alone programming device. Some status LEDs indicating the current operating state of the programmer can be connected, and a sig
nal is available to control a buffer/driver IC 74LS367 (or 74HCT367). The latter can be useful to decouple the parallel port from the MCU when in system pro
gramming is used.

A number of equally simple bit bang programming adapters that connect to a serial port are supported as well, among them the popular Ponyprog serial adapter,
and the DASA and DASA3 adapters that used to be supported by uisp(1). Note that these adapters are meant to be attached to a physical serial port. Connecting
to a serial port emulated on top of USB is likely to not work at all, or to work abysmally slow.

Atmel's STK500 programmer is also supported and connects to a serial port. Both, firmware versions 1.x and 2.x can be handled, but require a different pro
grammer type specification (by now). Using firmware version 2, high voltage programming is also supported, both parallel and serial (programmer types stk500pp
and stk500hvsp).

The Arduino (which is very similar to the STK500 1.x) is supported via its own programmer type specification ``arduino''.

The BusPirate is a versatile tool that can also be used as an AVR programmer. A single BusPirate can be connected to up to 3 independent AVRs. See the section
on extended parameters below for details.

Atmel's STK600 programmer is supported in ISP and high voltage programming modes, and connects through the USB. For ATxmega devices, the STK600 is supported
in PDI mode. For ATtiny4/5/9/10 devices, the STK600 and AVRISP mkII are supported in TPI mode.

The simple serial programmer described in Atmel's application note AVR910, and the bootloader described in Atmel's application note AVR109 (which is also used
by the AVR Butterfly evaluation board), are supported on a serial port.

Atmel's JTAG ICE (both mkI and mkII) is supported as well to up or download memory areas from/to an AVR target (no support for on chip debugging). For the
JTAG ICE mkII, JTAG, debugWire and ISP mode are supported, provided it has a firmware revision of at least 4.14 (decimal). See below for the limitations of
debugWire. For ATxmega devices, the JTAG ICE mkII is supported in PDI mode, provided it has a revision 1 hardware and firmware version of at least 5.37 (deci

The AVR Dragon is supported in all modes (ISP, JTAG, HVSP, PP, debugWire). When used in JTAG and debugWire mode, the AVR Dragon behaves similar to a JTAG ICE
mkII, so all device specific comments for that device will apply as well. When used in ISP mode, the AVR Dragon behaves similar to an AVRISP mkII (or JTAG ICE
mkII in ISP mode), so all device specific comments will apply there. In particular, the Dragon starts out with a rather fast ISP clock frequency, so the B
bitclock option might be required to achieve a stable ISP communication. For ATxmega devices, the AVR Dragon is supported in PDI mode, provided it has a
firmware version of at least 6.11 (decimal).

The USBasp ISP and USBtinyISP adapters are also supported, provided avrdude has been compiled with libusb support. They both feature simple firmware only USB
implementations, running on an ATmega8 (or ATmega88), or ATtiny2313, respectively.

Input files can be provided, and output files can be written in different file formats, such as raw binary files containing the data to download to the chip,
Intel hex format, or Motorola S record format. There are a number of tools available to produce those files, like asl(1) as a standalone assembler, or
avr objcopy(1) for the final stage of the GNU toolchain for the AVR microcontroller.

Avrdude can program the EEPROM and flash ROM memory cells of supported AVR parts. Where supported by the serial instruction set, fuse bits and lock bits can
be programmed as well. These are implemented within avrdude as separate memory types and can be programmed using data from a file (see the m option) or from
terminal mode (see the dump and write commands). It is also possible to read the chip (provided it has not been code protected previously, of course) and
store the data in a file. Finally, a ``terminal'' mode is available that allows one to interactively communicate with the MCU, and to display or program indi
vidual memory cells. On the STK500 and STK600 programmer, several operational parameters (target supply voltage, target Aref voltage, master clock) can be
examined and changed from within terminal mode as well.

In order to control all the different operation modi, a number of options need to be specified to avrdude.

p partno
This is the only option that is mandatory for every invocation of avrdude. It specifies the type of the MCU connected to the programmer. These
are read from the config file. If avrdude does not know about a part that you have, simply add it to the config file (be sure and submit a patch
back to the author so that it can be incorporated for the next version). See the sample config file for the format. Currently, the following
MCU types are understood:

Option tag Official part name
1200 AT90S1200
2313 AT90S2313
2333 AT90S2333
2343 AT90S2343 (*)
4414 AT90S4414
4433 AT90S4433
4434 AT90S4434
8515 AT90S8515
8535 AT90S8535
c128 AT90CAN128
c32 AT90CAN32
c64 AT90CAN64
m103 ATmega103
m128 ATmega128
m1280 ATmega1280
m1281 ATmega1281
m1284p ATmega1284P
m128rfa1 ATmega128RFA1
m16 ATmega16
m161 ATmega161
m162 ATmega162
m163 ATmega163
m164 ATmega164
m164p ATmega164P
m168 ATmega168
m169 ATmega169
m2560 ATmega2560 (**)
m2561 ATmega2561 (**)
m32 ATmega32
m324p ATmega324P
m325 ATmega325
m3250 ATmega3250
m328p ATmega328P
m329 ATmega329
m3290 ATmega3290
m329p ATmega329P
m3290p ATmega3290P
m32u4 ATmega32U4
m48 ATmega48
m64 ATmega64
m640 ATmega640
m644p ATmega644P
m644 ATmega644
m645 ATmega645
m6450 ATmega6450
m649 ATmega649
m6490 ATmega6490
m8 ATmega8
m8515 ATmega8515
m8535 ATmega8535
m88 ATmega88
pwm2 AT90PWM2
pwm2b AT90PWM2B
pwm3 AT90PWM3
pwm3b AT90PWM3B
t10 ATtiny10

t12 ATtiny12 (***)
t13 ATtiny13
t15 ATtiny15
t2313 ATtiny2313
t25 ATtiny25
t26 ATtiny26
t261 ATtiny261
t4 ATtiny4
t44 ATtiny44
t45 ATtiny45
t461 ATtiny461
t5 ATtiny5
t84 ATtiny84
t85 ATtiny85
t861 ATtiny861
t88 ATtiny88
t9 ATtiny9
ucr2 AT32uca0512
usb1286 ATmega1286
usb1287 ATmega1287
usb162 ATmega162
usb646 ATmega647
usb647 ATmega647
usb82 ATmega82
x128a1 ATxmega128A1
x128a1d ATxmega128A1revD
x128a3 ATxmega128A3
x128a4 ATxmega128A4
x16a4 ATxmega16A4
x192a1 ATxmega192A1
x192a3 ATxmega192A3
x256a1 ATxmega256A1
x256a3 ATxmega256A3
x256a3b ATxmega256A3B
x32a4 ATxmega32A4
x64a1 ATxmega64A1
x64a3 ATxmega64A3
x64a4 ATxmega64A4

(*) The AT90S2323 and ATtiny22 use the same algorithm.

(**) Flash addressing above 128 KB is not supported by all programming hardware. Known to work are jtag2, stk500v2, and bit bang programmers.

(***) The ATtiny11 uses the same algorithm, but can only be programmed in high voltage serial mode.

b baudrate
Override the RS 232 connection baud rate specified in the respective programmer's entry of the configuration file.

B bitclock
Specify the bit clock period for the JTAG interface or the ISP clock (JTAG ICE only). The value is a floating point number in microseconds. The
default value of the JTAG ICE results in about 1 microsecond bit clock period, suitable for target MCUs running at 4 MHz clock and above. Unlike
certain parameters in the STK500, the JTAG ICE resets all its parameters to default values when the programming software signs off from the ICE,
so for MCUs running at lower clock speeds, this parameter must be specified on the command line.

c programmer id
Use the pin configuration specified by the argument. Pin configurations are read from the config file (see the C option). New pin configura
tions can be easily added or modified through the use of a config file to make avrdude work with different programmers as long as the programmer
supports the Atmel AVR serial program method. You can use the 'default_programmer' keyword in your ${HOME}/.avrduderc file to assign a default
programmer to keep from having to specify this option on every invocation.

C config file
Use the specified config file to load configuration data. This file contains all programmer and part definitions that avrdude knows about. If
you have a programmer or part that avrdude does not know about, you can add it to the config file (be sure and submit a patch back to the author
so that it can be incorporated for the next version). See the config file, located at /etc/avrdude.conf, which contains a description of the

D Disable auto erase for flash. When the U option with flash memory is specified, avrdude will perform a chip erase before starting any of the
programming operations, since it generally is a mistake to program the flash without performing an erase first. This option disables that. Auto
erase is not used for ATxmega devices as these devices can use page erase before writing each page so no explicit chip erase is required. Note
however that any page not affected by the current operation will retain its previous contents.

e Causes a chip erase to be executed. This will reset the contents of the flash ROM and EEPROM to the value '0xff', and clear all lock bits.
Except for ATxmega devices which can use page erase, it is basically a prerequisite command before the flash ROM can be reprogrammed again. The
only exception would be if the new contents would exclusively cause bits to be programmed from the value '1' to '0'. Note that in order to
reprogram EERPOM cells, no explicit prior chip erase is required since the MCU provides an auto erase cycle in that case before programming the

E exitspec[,exitspec]
By default, avrdude leaves the parallel port in the same state at exit as it has been found at startup. This option modifies the state of the
'/RESET' and 'Vcc' lines the parallel port is left at, according to the exitspec arguments provided, as follows:

reset The '/RESET' signal will be left activated at program exit, that is it will be held low, in order to keep the MCU in reset state after
wards. Note in particular that the programming algorithm for the AT90S1200 device mandates that the '/RESET' signal is active before
powering up the MCU, so in case an external power supply is used for this MCU type, a previous invocation of avrdude with this option
specified is one of the possible ways to guarantee this condition.

noreset The '/RESET' line will be deactivated at program exit, thus allowing the MCU target program to run while the programming hardware
remains connected.

vcc This option will leave those parallel port pins active (i. e. high) that can be used to supply 'Vcc' power to the MCU.

novcc This option will pull the 'Vcc' pins of the parallel port down at program exit.

Multiple exitspec arguments can be separated with commas.

F Normally, avrdude tries to verify that the device signature read from the part is reasonable before continuing. Since it can happen from time to
time that a device has a broken (erased or overwritten) device signature but is otherwise operating normally, this options is provided to over
ride the check. Also, for programmers like the Atmel STK500 and STK600 which can adjust parameters local to the programming tool (independent of
an actual connection to a target controller), this option can be used together with t to continue in terminal mode.

i delay
For bitbang type programmers, delay for approximately delay microseconds between each bit state change. If the host system is very fast, or the
target runs off a slow clock (like a 32 kHz crystal, or the 128 kHz internal RC oscillator), this can become necessary to satisfy the requirement
that the ISP clock frequency must not be higher than 1/4 of the CPU clock frequency. This is implemented as a spin loop delay to allow even for
very short delays. On Unix style operating systems, the spin loop is initially calibrated against a system timer, so the number of microseconds
might be rather realistic, assuming a constant system load while avrdude is running. On Win32 operating systems, a preconfigured number of
cycles per microsecond is assumed that might be off a bit for very fast or very slow machines.

n No write disables actually writing data to the MCU (useful for debugging avrdude ).

O Perform a RC oscillator run time calibration according to Atmel application note AVR053. This is only supported on the STK500v2, AVRISP mkII,
and JTAG ICE mkII hardware. Note that the result will be stored in the EEPROM cell at address 0.

P port
Use port to identify the device to which the programmer is attached. By default the /dev/ppi0 port is used, but if the programmer type normally
connects to the serial port, the /dev/cuaa0 port is the default. If you need to use a different parallel or serial port, use this option to
specify the alternate port name.

On Win32 operating systems, the parallel ports are referred to as lpt1 through lpt3, referring to the addresses 0x378, 0x278, and 0x3BC, respec
tively. If the parallel port can be accessed through a different address, this address can be specified directly, using the common C language
notation (i. e., hexadecimal values are prefixed by '0x' ).

For the JTAG ICE mkII, if avrdude has been configured with libusb support, port can alternatively be specified as usb[:serialno]. This will
cause avrdude to search a JTAG ICE mkII on USB. If serialno is also specified, it will be matched against the serial number read from any JTAG
ICE mkII found on USB. The match is done after stripping any existing colons from the given serial number, and right to left, so only the least
significant bytes from the serial number need to be given.

As the AVRISP mkII device can only be talked to over USB, the very same method of specifying the port is required there.

For the USB programmer "AVR Doper" running in HID mode, the port must be specified as avrdoper. Libusb support is required on Unix but not on
Windows. For more information about AVR Doper see

For programmers that attach to a serial port using some kind of higher level protocol (as opposed to bit bang style programmers), port can be
specified as net:host:port. In this case, instead of trying to open a local device, a TCP network connection to (TCP) port on host is estab
lished. The remote endpoint is assumed to be a terminal or console server that connects the network stream to a local serial port where the
actual programmer has been attached to. The port is assumed to be properly configured, for example using a transparent 8 bit data connection
without parity at 115200 Baud for a STK500. This feature is currently not implemented for Win32 systems.

q Disable (or quell) output of the progress bar while reading or writing to the device. Specify it a second time for even quieter operation.

s Disable safemode prompting. When safemode discovers that one or more fuse bits have unintentionally changed, it will prompt for confirmation
regarding whether or not it should attempt to recover the fuse bit(s). Specifying this flag disables the prompt and assumes that the fuse bit(s)
should be recovered without asking for confirmation first.

t Tells avrdude to enter the interactive ``terminal'' mode instead of up or downloading files. See below for a detailed description of the termi
nal mode.

u Disable the safemode fuse bit checks. Safemode is enabled by default and is intended to prevent unintentional fuse bit changes. When enabled,
safemode will issue a warning if the any fuse bits are found to be different at program exit than they were when avrdude was invoked. Safemode
won't alter fuse bits itself, but rather will prompt for instructions, unless the terminal is non interactive, in which case safemode is dis
abled. See the s option to disable safemode prompting.

U memtype:op:filename[:format]
Perform a memory operation as indicated. The memtype field specifies the memory type to operate on. The available memory types are device
dependent, the actual configuration can be viewed with the part command in terminal mode. Typically, a device's memory configuration at least
contains the memory types flash and eeprom. All memory types currently known are:
calibration One or more bytes of RC oscillator calibration data.
eeprom The EEPROM of the device.
efuse The extended fuse byte.
flash The flash ROM of the device.
fuse The fuse byte in devices that have only a single fuse byte.
hfuse The high fuse byte.
lfuse The low fuse byte.
lock The lock byte.
signature The three device signature bytes (device ID).
fuseN The fuse bytes of ATxmega devices, N is an integer number for each fuse supported by the device.
application The application flash area of ATxmega devices.
apptable The application table flash area of ATxmega devices.
boot The boot flash area of ATxmega devices.
prodsig The production signature (calibration) area of ATxmega devices.
usersig The user signature area of ATxmega devices.

The op field specifies what operation to perform:

r read device memory and write to the specified file

w read data from the specified file and write to the device memory

v read data from both the device and the specified file and perform a verify

The filename field indicates the name of the file to read or write. The format field is optional and contains the format of the file to read or
write. Format can be one of:

i Intel Hex

s Motorola S record

r raw binary; little endian byte order, in the case of the flash ROM data

m immediate; actual byte values specified on the command line, separated by commas or spaces. This is good for programming fuse bytes without
having to create a single byte file or enter terminal mode.

a auto detect; valid for input only, and only if the input is not provided at stdin.

d decimal; this and the following formats are only valid on output. They generate one line of output for the respective memory section, form
ing a comma separated list of the values. This can be particularly useful for subsequent processing, like for fuse bit settings.

h hexadecimal; each value will get the string 0x prepended.

o octal; each value will get a 0 prepended unless it is less than 8 in which case it gets no prefix.

b binary; each value will get the string 0b prepended.

The default is to use auto detection for input files, and raw binary format for output files. Note that if filename contains a colon, the format
field is no longer optional since the filename part following the colon would otherwise be misinterpreted as format.

As an abbreviation, the form U filename is equivalent to specifying U flash:w:filename:a. This will only work if filename does not have a
colon in it.

v Enable verbose output.

V Disable automatic verify check when uploading data.

x extended_param
Pass extended_param to the chosen programmer implementation as an extended parameter. The interpretation of the extended parameter depends on
the programmer itself. See below for a list of programmers accepting extended parameters.

y Tells avrdude to use the last four bytes of the connected parts' EEPROM memory to track the number of times the device has been erased. When
this option is used and the e flag is specified to generate a chip erase, the previous counter will be saved before the chip erase, it is then
incremented, and written back after the erase cycle completes. Presumably, the device would only be erased just before being programmed, and
thus, this can be utilized to give an indication of how many erase rewrite cycles the part has undergone. Since the FLASH memory can only endure
a finite number of erase rewrite cycles, one can use this option to track when a part is nearing the limit. The typical limit for Atmel AVR
FLASH is 1000 cycles. Of course, if the application needs the last four bytes of EEPROM memory, this option should not be used.

Y cycles
Instructs avrdude to initialize the erase rewrite cycle counter residing at the last four bytes of EEPROM memory to the specified value. If the
application needs the last four bytes of EEPROM memory, this option should not be used.

Terminal mode
In this mode, avrdude only initializes communication with the MCU, and then awaits user commands on standard input. Commands and parameters may be abbreviated
to the shortest unambiguous form. Terminal mode provides a command history using readline(3), so previously entered command lines can be recalled and edited.
The following commands are currently implemented:

dump memtype addr nbytes
Read nbytes bytes from the specified memory area, and display them in the usual hexadecimal and ASCII form.

dump Continue dumping the memory contents for another nbytes where the previous dump command left off.

write memtype addr byte1 ... byteN
Manually program the respective memory cells, starting at address addr, using the values byte1 through byteN. This feature is not implemented
for bank addressed memories such as the flash memory of ATMega devices.

erase Perform a chip erase.

send b1 b2 b3 b4
Send raw instruction codes to the AVR device. If you need access to a feature of an AVR part that is not directly supported by avrdude, this
command allows you to use it, even though avrdude does not implement the command. When using direct SPI mode, up to 3 bytes can be omitted.

sig Display the device signature bytes.

spi Enter direct SPI mode. The pgmled pin acts as slave select. Only supported on parallel bitbang programmers.

part Display the current part settings and parameters. Includes chip specific information including all memory types supported by the device,
read/write timing, etc.

pgm Return to programming mode (from direct SPI mode).

vtarg voltage
Set the target's supply voltage to voltage Volts. Only supported on the STK500 and STK600 programmer.

varef [channel] voltage
Set the adjustable voltage source to voltage Volts. This voltage is normally used to drive the target's Aref input on the STK500. On the Atmel
STK600, two reference voltages are available, which can be selected by the optional channel argument (either 0 or 1). Only supported on the
STK500 and STK600 programmer.

fosc freq[M|k]
Set the master oscillator to freq Hz. An optional trailing letter M multiplies by 1E6, a trailing letter k by 1E3. Only supported on the STK500
and STK600 programmer.

fosc off
Turn the master oscillator off. Only supported on the STK500 and STK600 programmer.

sck period
STK500 and STK600 programmer only: Set the SCK clock period to period microseconds.

JTAG ICE only: Set the JTAG ICE bit clock period to period microseconds. Note that unlike STK500 settings, this setting will be reverted to its
default value (approximately 1 microsecond) when the programming software signs off from the JTAG ICE. This parameter can also be used on the
JTAG ICE mkII to specify the ISP clock period when operating the ICE in ISP mode.

parms STK500 and STK600 programmer only: Display the current voltage and master oscillator parameters.

JTAG ICE only: Display the current target supply voltage and JTAG bit clock rate/period.


help Give a short on line summary of the available commands.

quit Leave terminal mode and thus avrdude.

Default Parallel port pin connections
(these can be changed, see the c option)
Pin number Function
2 5 Vcc (optional power supply to MCU)
7 /RESET (to MCU)
8 SCK (to MCU)
9 MOSI (to MCU)
10 MISO (from MCU)
18 25 GND

debugWire limitations
The debugWire protocol is Atmel's proprietary one wire (plus ground) protocol to allow an in circuit emulation of the smaller AVR devices, using the '/RESET'
line. DebugWire mode is initiated by activating the 'DWEN' fuse, and then power cycling the target. While this mode is mainly intended for debugging/emula
tion, it also offers limited programming capabilities. Effectively, the only memory areas that can be read or programmed in this mode are flash ROM and EEP
ROM. It is also possible to read out the signature. All other memory areas cannot be accessed. There is no chip erase functionality in debugWire mode;
instead, while reprogramming the flash ROM, each flash ROM page is erased right before updating it. This is done transparently by the JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR
Dragon). The only way back from debugWire mode is to initiate a special sequence of commands to the JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR Dragon), so the debugWire mode will
be temporarily disabled, and the target can be accessed using normal ISP programming. This sequence is automatically initiated by using the JTAG ICE mkII or
AVR Dragon in ISP mode, when they detect that ISP mode cannot be entered.

Programmers accepting extended parameters

AVR Dragon
When using the JTAG ICE mkII or AVR Dragon in JTAG mode, the following extended parameter is accepted:


Related Topics

Apt Get Commands